Cystoscopy enables an urologist to directly view the inside of the urinary bladder and urethra in great detail using a "cystoscope" (the instrument used).
The bladder is the organ that stores urine and the urethra is the tube that drains urine out through the penis. The prostate lies immediately beneath the bladder and completely surrounds the urethra and lies immediately in front of the rectum (back passage) .
The haemoglobin level is checked and the different blood cells are looked at in detail under the microscope. Various forms of anaemia are picked up as are viral infections like glandular fever. People on some medications require regular FBE's.
It is a substance produced almost exclusively in the prostate and plays a role in fertility. The vast majority is actually released into the ejaculate but tiny amounts are released into the blood stream and can be detected by a simple blood test.
A chest x-ray and x-rays of the bones are often taken to check your general health and see if there has been any spread of the cancer to other parts of the body.
Urodynamic Assessment is a highly specialised and sophisticated method of making a scientifically accurate diagnosis of the cause of incontinence. The Urodynamic recording system, which measures all the important functions of the bladder, is connected to a computer.
Ultrasound scans use sound waves to build up a picture of the inside of the body. To scan the prostate gland a small probe is passed into the back passage and the image of the prostate appears on a screen. This type of scan is used to measure the size and density of the prostate. A sample of cells (biopsy) can be taken at the same time for examination under the microscope by a pathologist.